Irreducible Being? Moral Fact? Logic Itself? Reason Itself? Mind as per Absolute Consciousness? Abstraction's Transposition? Are THOSE reality’s concrete furniture? One way to see why that in fact IS the case is to look at the following:
Our Non-Theist friends often Challenge Logic along the same line as they Challenge Moral Fact and while that is honest on their part it is interesting that the they seem unaware ((...or unconcerned...)) with the cost of that choice. And it is a choice of course as other options are immediately available.
The Form of the Challenge which our Non-Theist friends present with respect to the fundamental nature of Logic typically shows up along the following lines:
A— “….If Logic ends in God then God must be subject to Logic and so God is not God, or else God is metaphysically free to be Non-Logic and therefore able to make round-squares such that [A = Non-A] is true in some possible world….or something like that….”
B— That which is “Logic Itself” is either 1. itself under the Laws of Logic or else 2. It (logic) can be, or is metaphysically free to be, Non-Logic.
Before "A" & "B" A Brief Preliminary:
The following is incoherent: “God Is The Source Of Goodness”. The Why/How of that incoherence follows necessarily from what is actually being referenced by the term "God" in the Christian Metaphysic and so it is critical that one move forward with the proper meaning of the term God, and, so, see “God Vs A God Vs Gods Vs The Gods Vs Sky Daddy Vs Santa Clause Vs Imaginary Friend Vs Being Itself Vs Existence Itself Vs Metaphysical Wellspring Of All Ontological Possibility” which is at https://metachristianity.com/god-vs-a-god-vs-gods-vs-the-gods-vs-sky-daddy-vs-santa-clause/
Continuing with our brief preliminary ((...the Moral...)) before moving into "Logic" we find this pesky fact: X can’t be the source of X given that X is "Being Itself" / Existence Itself" as per the previous linked essay and, so, as we move forward we will look at why/how “Source Of” and “Is Subject To” and “Is Beneath” and "Is Obligated To" are all incoherent.
Notice what this is NOT a discussion of: the Trinitarian Monarchy and the reason we are not looking at these terms in that setting is because we are looking instead at Movement & Causality & Pre & Source & Etc. in various fallacious senses regarding "ultimate reality". Given the Metaphysical Latticework of all ontological possibility and all possible syllogisms in all possible worlds we discover that "Logic" is fully funded in and of Divine Simplicity and so we find ourselves in referents relevant to Life/Progression with respect to the Trinitarian Monarchy and Spiration and Procession and so on. But the topic here is to work towards that, not to start there. Moving forward then, we would have the following:
Existence-Itself Cannot Be The Source Of Existence-Itself
Notice the problem. It is in what is supposed to be “happening” or “arriving” or “transposing” within the syntax of “The Source Of”. The very notion that “Reality’s Wellspring is “The Source of” Reality’s Wellspring” leads us to the same problem within the re-invention of Being when it is stated that Being Itself is the “Source Of” Being Itself. The incoherence there is born of a metaphysical absurdity and in fact the only way to FORCE / SHOEHORN it into coherence is to CHANGE the very essence of “Being” / "Existence" such that in fact one COULD find a “Pre” and therefore one COULD insert a “Source”. IF one finds a "Pre" THEN one inserts a "Source". IF there is NO SOURCE well THEN there is NO PRE to be had. One has "landed" at "Reality's Rock Bottom" — at one's explanatory terminus:
"...The reason is that for the classical theist, whatever else we mean by “God,” we certainly mean by that label to name the ultimate source, cause, or explanation of things. Properly to understand classical theism, the hostile atheist reader might even find it useful to put the word “God” out of his mind for the moment – given all the irrelevant associations the word might lead him to read into the present discussion – and just think instead of “the ultimate source of things..." ~ from E. Feser at https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/10/why-is-there-anything-at-all-its-simple.html
We find that the claim of "Being-Itself/Existence-Itself Is The Source Of Being-Itself/Existence-Itself " reduces to the nonsensical “Changed Essence of Being” and so we end then with incoherence in that Re-Invented Shoehorn. The result is that it is in fact logically impossible to find any "Source" and any “Pre” and therefore it is logically impossible to insert any “Source” or any "Pre". Again see “God Vs A God Vs Gods Vs The Gods Vs Sky Daddy Vs Santa Clause Vs Imaginary Friend Vs Being Itself Vs Existence Itself Vs Metaphysical Wellspring Of All Ontological Possibility” which is at https://metachristianity.com/god-vs-a-god-vs-gods-vs-the-gods-vs-sky-daddy-vs-santa-clause/
From There We Continue Our Morality Preliminary Before Moving To Logic:
How all of that translates over inside of "The Good" and "Morality" becomes evident given that the Trinitarian Life as per the Christian Metaphysic finds the uncanny Singularity vis-à-vis Timeless Reciprocity and Ceaseless Self-Giving. So, when we speak of “Morality” we speak of Timeless Reciprocity / Ceaseless Self-Giving because we speak of “Reality’s Concrete Furniture” because we speak of Trinity because we speak of God. So, that said, there is the following:
- Timeless Reciprocity can’t be the source of Timeless Reciprocity
- Ceaseless Self-Giving can’t be the source of Ceaseless Self-Giving
- Being Itself can’t be the source of Being Itself.
- Existence Itself is not Metaphysically Free To Be Non-Existence
- Existence Itself is not Obligated to Existence Itself
Notice that nothing changes when we use any of the following:
- “Source Of”
- “Is Subject To”
- “Is Beneath”
- “Is Metaphysically Free To Be Non-Existence" ((..or whatever...))
- "Is Obligated To"
Zeroing In On Logic
Notice that the problem with that approach in [A] and [B] is the same problem with all contingent abstractions of all contingent minds and that is true whether one makes the attempt with Logic Itself or with Being-Itself or with The-Good Itself or with Reason-Itself or with Mind Itself and — lest we move to fast — it also holds if/when one makes the attempt with "I/Self" or with one's First Person Experience vis-à-vis one's one perceived "Irreducible-I-Am" vis-à-vis that which is nothing less than "Self" vis-à-vis "i-am" / "i-reason" / "i-intend" / "i-exist" and so on.
Notice that in both [A] and [B] the challenge redefines that which "God-Is" into that which "God-Has" such that THEN — and ONLY then — it can be said that Something Is Above/Beneath Something Else such that "...God must be subject to Logic and so God is not God, or else God is metaphysically free to be Non-Logic..." and so on as per [A] and [B] above. When the Christian speaks of "God" as "Being Itself" it is for a reason as that which "Has Being" cannot be ((...in any coherent sense...)) the Ground of All Being.
Obviously both [A] and [B] employ the syntax of the following:
A2— Logic-Is-Subject-To-Logic and/or
B2— Logic-Is-Beneath-Logic and/or
C2— Logic-Is-Metaphysically-Free-To-Be-Non-Logic or else Logic is not Logic.
Which then forces / sums to the following:
D2— “X Is Subject To X“ akin to
E2— “X Is Beneath X“ akin to
F2— “Being Itself Is Subject To Being Itself” akin to
F2— “Being Itself Is Beneath Being Itself” akin to
G2— “X Is Metaphysically Free To Be Non-X” akin to
H2— “Being Itself Is Metaphysically Free To Be Non-Being”
It may help to place "Existence Itself" on each side of the descriptive, such as "Existence Itself Is The Source Of Existence Itself" or "Existence Itself is Metaphysically Free To Be Non-Existence" and so on. Recall again that nothing changes when we use any of the following:
- “Source Of”
- “Is Subject To”
- “Is Beneath”
- “Is Metaphysically Free To Be Non-Existence" ((..or whatever...))
- "Is Obligated To"
Those are of course are nonsensical identity claims and we rationally say of all such syntax:
— 1 — None of them have anything to do with the Christian Metaphysic
— 2 — All of them are themselves logical absurdities
— 3 — The incoherence there is born of a metaphysical absurdity and in fact the only way to FORCE / SHOEHORN it into coherence is to CHANGE the very essence of “Being” / "Existence" such that in fact one COULD find a “Pre” and therefore one COULD insert a “Source”. IF one finds a "Pre" THEN one inserts a "Source". IF there is NO SOURCE well THEN there is NO PRE to be had. One has "landed" at "Reality's Rock Bottom" — at one's explanatory terminus.
Notice that "Getting In Behind/Beneath Oneself" is not coherent such that "We Mean To Apply Logic's Force To Pre-Logic" is not coherent. "Presupposition" is not possible UNLESS and UNTIL the Critic can coherently pull-off A2 through H2. But of course the Non-Theist cannot pull-off those Nonsensical Identity Claims. It is not clear what our Non-Theist friends mean with respect to Reason/Mind when they accuse the Christian of Pre-Supposing by getting in Pre-Being and getting in Pre-Mind and getting in Pre-Reason and getting in Pre-Perception vis-à-vis getting in Pre-The-Intentional Self.
Think It Through: It becomes unavoidable as to WHY the Christian does not and in fact CANNOT Start/Stop in any such Pre-ANY-thing given that the very notion of Pre-Being collapses into a metaphysical absurdity. Indeed once we apply the UNDOING of those Nonsensical Identity Claims of A2 through H2 ((…which were only the result of fallacious re-inventions / fallacious strawmen of actual Christian premises/definitions…)) we find the express Start/Stop or the express A—Z of the Christian Paradigm vis-à-vis Reason Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis Goodness Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis Logic Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis Timeless Reciprocity and Ceaseless Self-Giving as Being in totum || Being Itself vis-à-vis All Processions as The Trinitarian Life.
Think It Through: We are forced to find Being Itself and I-AM as a metaphysical Singularity and here there are no options for any Non-Theistic Map of the Underived/Derived. The question of “The Fundamental Nature of X” vis-à-vis Intentionality, Reason, Self, Mind, and Being/Existence in/of i-exist/i-am in and of the First Person Experience forces us to ask, “From Whence The Fundamental Nature of i-am?” That question is what is on the table and the Christian Metaphysic alone houses all such semantic intent in and by the Principle of Proportionate Causality (…not to be confused with the PSR…) as per the following:
"...The idea is perhaps best stated in Platonic terms of the sort Aquinas uses (in an Aristotelianized form) in the Fourth Way. To be a tree or to be a stone is merely to participate in “treeness” or “stoneness.” But to be at all – which is the characteristic effect of an act of creation out of nothing – is to participate in Being Itself. Now the principle of proportionate causality tells us that whatever is in an effect must be in some way in its cause. And only that which just is Being Itself can, in this case, be a cause proportionate to the effect, since the effect is not merely to be a tree or to be a stone, but to be at all..." (E. Feser)
With that same Principle of Proportionate Causality in hand we realize that without any such (actual/ontic) Being To (actual/ontic) Being seamlessness there is no seamless ontology for the fundamental nature of Being/Existence vis-à-vis i-am/i-exist in ANY Non-Theistic “explanatory terminus” as in all such ((Non-Theistic)) termini one must attempt the metaphysically impossible — as alluded to in the following:
- One must willfully trade away one’s self as/in being instead of retaining being when one’s own First Person Experience in/as being never led one to do so ((how could it?)).
- One must willfully trade away one’s self as/in reason instead of retaining reason when one’s own First Person Experience in/as reason never led one to do so ((how could it?)).
- One must willfully trade away one’s self as/in intention instead of retaining intention when one’s own First Person Experience in/as intention never led one to do so ((how could it?)).
- One must willfully trade away one’s self as/in existence instead of retaining existence when one’s own First Person Experience in/as existence never led one to do so ((how could it?)).
- One must willfully trade away one’s self as/in i-am instead of retaining i-am when one’s own First Person Experience in/as i-am never led one to do so ((how could it?)).
- Trading For Non-Being 1 of 3: One must willfully trade away what one Sees not only for what one Cannot See but for what one cannot see even in principle, which is to say one must trade away Being for Non-Being ((but how?))
- Trading For Non-Being 2 of 3: One must willfully trade away that which both Is & Can-Be, namely Lucidity, for that which not only Is-Not but that which Cannot-Be even in principle, namely Non-Being vis-à-vis the Metaphysical Round-Square — namely Non-Being vis-à-vis the Reductio Ad Absurdum ((but how?))
- Trading For Non-Being 3 of 3: One must therefore stop one's Evidence Based Act of Walking Forward for one must stop placing one's foot atop the Next Stepping Stone out in front vis-à-vis that which one in fact Sees because one must instead turn one's gaze backwards and make one's bizarre appeal to the Pre-I-AM vis-à-vis Pre-Being vis-à-vis Non-Being vis-à-vis the Presupposition in order to "pull it off" ((but how?))
Think It Through: In one’s i-am/i-exist First Person Experience it is that very Consciousness as Intentional-Being which must willfully trade away i-am/i-exist vis-à-vis the Irreducible First Person in Reasoning as Intentional-Being when it is in fact impossible for one in/as i-am/i-exist vis-à-vis the Irreducible First Person Experience of Being/Existence to do/make any such Trade/Giving. The very notion of Reasoning Being ((Illusion)) following Reason In Being ((Illusion)) and thereby on the Force of Reason Itself ((Illusion)) giving away Reason Itself ((Illusion)) to Non-Reason/Non-Being ((Non-Illusion)) collapses into a metaphysical impossibility. But then that just is the Circularity & Question Begging & Reductio-Ad-Absurdum of all Non-Theistic “Ends” given Metaphysical Naturalism’s Necessary Conservation of [No-I-AM] in ANY “Fundamental Nature of X”.
The Compulsory A—Z as Logic Itself Sums To Irreducible Being: In simplicity and in seamlessness we arrive in that which is free of all Non-Being and thereby free of Pre-Being and thereby free of all Pre-Supposition and therein we arrive at the same A—Z which we arrive at through Natural Theology which [A] starts off with nothing but the Presupposition-Free Neonate + Perception + Self + the External World + Change ((Etc. Etc.)) and which eventually [B] terminates in nothing less than the Principle of Proportionate Causality vis-à-vis Being Itself vis-à-vis Divine Mind vis-à-vis Pure Act vis-à-vis the Christian Paradigm and all of that of course in arrives in seamless singularity as the Christian Metaphysic vis-à-vis Reason Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis Goodness Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis Logic Itself as Being Itself vis-à-vis the Reference Frame of Totality — or The Absolute’s Own Reference Frame — which necessarily saturates (1) all possible reference frames within all possible worlds and (2) all actual reference frames within all actual worlds vis-à-vis Logos void of Potentiality and so in nothing less than Pure Act as the Fountainhead of all ontological possibility which necessarily streams from nothing less than all possible Procession & Communique amid The Infinite Knower & The Infinitely Known in Timeless Reciprocity and Ceaseless Self-Giving as Being in totum compelling us – carrying us – into the Map of The Underived.
Logic As The Metaphysical Wellspring of All Ontological Possibility finds a compulsory A through Z regarding the Essential Metaphysical Latticework of All Ontological Possibility as per the following:
Latticework & The Compulsory A—Z therefore unavoidably Maps as follows: [Logic Itself] sums to [Irreducible Being] if and only if [Being Itself = Pure Act] and therefore is Itself the Metaphysical Wellspring of [All Ontological Possibility] — and therefore is Itself the Metaphysical Wellspring of [All Possible Propositions] in All Possible Reference Frames — and therefore is Itself the Metaphysical Wellspring of [All Possible Syllogisms] in All Possible Frames of Reference — and therefore Itself necessarily saturates all possible reference frames within all possible worlds and all actual reference frames within all actual worlds vis-à-vis Logos void of Potentiality in Timeless Processions vis-à-vis the Trinitarian Life.
Latticework & The Compulsory A—Z Therefore unavoidably Maps as follows: The entire Noetic, Incorporeal, and Essential Metaphysical Latticework of [All Ontological Possibility] — and therefore of [All Possible Propositions] in All Possible Reference Frames — and therefore of [All Possible Syllogisms] in All Possible Frames of Reference — and therefore All Possible Saturation-Of all Possible Reference Frames within all Possible worlds and All Actual Saturation-Of all Actual Reference Frames within all Actual worlds vis-à-vis Logos void of Potentiality vis-à-vis Pure Act as Timeless Processions vis-à-vis the Trinitarian Life.
From here we move to a different inroad into the Map under review:
Being Necessarily Displaces Non-Being
It is helpful to look at Perception/Sight as it relates to the Reductio Ad Absurdum and to Evil and to Logic in the following 3 steps/phases:
Step/Phase 1 of 3 is the concept of Privation: There is that which “IS” such that there is there what we all “Being” and there is that which “IS NOT” such that there is not there what we call “Being” but we would instead say “Non-Being” as in the Philosophical No-Thing. A helpful bridge to explain that concept is the Christian Metaphysic’s definition of Evil. Evil is not a positive substance such as, say, “Goodness Plus X” but is instead a deficiency of substance ((…deficiency of Being, of Good, of Life, of Mind, and so on…)) or we can say that Evil is a Hollow or Vacuum of said Substance/Ontic as in “Goodness Minus Something”. Evil “Exits” in that “Goodness Minus Something” in fact “Exists”. That is what the Christian Metaphysic means when it speaks of The-Good and then in turn speaks of “The-Good-Minus-Something” which is to say “Evil is Good’s Privation” or “Evil is a Privation of Good” which is to say “A Deficiency Of Being”. It is not No-Thing, nor is it The Whole Thing, but instead it is “The Whole/Good Minus Something”.
Step/Phase 2 of 3 is Sight/Perceiving: When one “Sees/Perceives” that which is “Evil” one is seeing that which “IS” such that there is what we call “Being” but notice that what IS and what is Seen/Perceived is “Something Good With A Deficiency”. We see a “Part Of What Is Left” such that there is what we call “Being” ((though Corrupted/Deficient)). We do NOT See/Perceive an “Illusion” or “No-Thing” which is to say we do NOT See/Perceive that which “Is Not” which is to say we do NOT See/Perceive “Non-Being”. Hence the following arrives intact:
It is a metaphysical and logical impossibility to “See/Perceive the Philosophical No-Thing” which is to say that it is a metaphysical and logical impossibility to “See/Perceive Non-Being” – which is to say that Being necessarily displaces Non-Being at any/all “decision-points”.
Step/Phase 3 of 3 is Logic, Being, and the Reductio Ad Absurdum: We can claim to follow what we “Perceive/See”, however, that which is in the box/category named “Reductio Ad Absurdum” or in the box/category named “Contradiction” is in fact the metaphysical equivalent of “Non-Being” or the Philosophical No-Thing. For example, the Round Square ((Reductio)) is not a “Thing That Exists” and it cannot even in principle exist, and therefore it referents a Non-Thing — or the “Being-Less” — that which “IS NOT” such that there is NOT there what we call “Being” nor even Being-Minus-Something but we would instead say “Non-Being” as in The Philosophical No-Thing.
Here it helps to think of “Privation” in the same way we think of “Evil” as Being-Minus-Something or a Deficiency Of Being. To “See Evil” is to see “Something” rather than “No-Thing”. However, that is not the case with “Seeing/Perceiving” the Reductio and/or the Contradiction and that is because when it comes to “Following Reason” and “Following what we can in fact Perceive/See” we do not and cannot even in principle in fact “See/Perceive” “Non-Being”. Notice again what all of this does to those earlier Nonsensical Identity Claims of A2 through H2
Combining All 3 Steps/Phases:
There are metaphysical maps or decision-points when the Reductio Ad Absurdum and/or the Contradiction are Chosen/Followed “rather than” some other option such that “Illusion” and therefore “The Philosophical No-Thing” and therefore “Non-Being” are claimed to occupy some part of some Map at the expense of some other option which is NOT itself the Reductio Ad Absurdum and/or the Contradiction. Notice that this “other option” need not be “Whole” in order to actually be “something” and so win out over and above the “No-Thing” of the Reductio and/or the Contradiction and so notice that Being wins out over Non-Being merely by summing to ANY-thing more than No-Thing, even a mere “Privation” ((Being-Minus-Something)).
The Conscious Observer in the Map of all Non-Theistic Paradigms finds that very move/decision point given Non-Theism’s Necessary Conservation of [No-I-Am] in ANY “Fundamental Nature of X” whether we move from the Top Down or from the Bottom Up. Therein ALL First Person Data vis-à-vis “i” / “i-reason” / “i-think” / “i-exist” / “i-am” must die the death of a thousand equivocations and finally forfeit the Irreducible Hard Stop that is The Self / Conscious Observer and trade it away for what cannot even in principle take its place. One ends up “Equating” something like, say, “Gravity” for “i-reason” ((…and so on as Non-Theism must finally Honor the aforementioned Necessary Conservation …)) which of course collapses into “Non-A Equals A” which of course collapses into a Contradiction and the Reductio Ad Absurdum vis-à-vis the Total Illusion that is the First Person Experience. And again the following arrives intact:
It is a metaphysical and logical impossibility to “See/Perceive the Philosophical No-Thing” which is to say that it is a metaphysical and logical impossibility to “See/Perceive Non-Being” – which is to say that Being necessarily displaces Non-Being at any/all “decision-points”.
When we say that we "Follow Reason/Evidence/Sight" we mean we follow that which "IS" to wherever it may lead us and therein we will find that all strong vectors converge in nothing less than the full-on syntax/semantic intent in and of The Great I-AM.
Seeing Evil vs. Seeing Reductio & Contradiction:
The following is an excerpt from a discussion which has overlapping content and again notice what happens to those earlier Nonsensical Identity Claims of A2 through H2
Begin Excerpt From Discussion:
We can "Perceive/See" Evil via Evil as a Privation of Good and the reason why is because "Privation" entails "Being Minus Something" (so to speak). In other words that which in fact Is/Has Being is "there" to "See", its just that it is deficient. It's missing something.
So that is "Being" as it relates to "Perception/Sight".
But when it comes to Seeing/Perceiving that which is "Contradiction / Reductio-Ad-Absurdum" then we are dealing ((now)) with Non-Being. For example there is no such "Entity" as "Married Bachelor". We can SPEAK OF such a "thing" but in fact it sums to "Philosophical No-Thing" as per Non-Being.
This then forces us to interact with First Person Data. We "See/Perceive" ((introspection / first person data / etc.)) in the unity of consciousness that which is i-am ((...the Intentional Self/Mind...)) and of course with the dissolution of I/Self comes the dissolution of the Mind and with that comes the dissolution of all epistemic justification. So far we have that fatal problem of "No Conscious Observer" in Being and so then also "No Self-Reports Of Perception" in Being and we make our way into Opaque Skepticism. Yes, the Skeptic is ready to embrace his final loss of all epistemic justification vis-à-vis the loss of all veracity and all truth value of all First Person Data "…for all we know…".
That's opaque skepticism and so that's that. But that is not what this brief digression is about. Rather, there is another layer too often left off of the charges against the Opaque Skeptic. And that is as follows:
First, the Opaque Skeptic must tell us "at some point" that he does NOT SEE/PERCEIVE i-am ((...but that's just dishonesty…)). By that we mean the following: Because the Opaque Skeptic is offering his own, "For All "I" Know "I" Am Hallucinating or Illusion or Etc." and so "I" is there in principle traded away for Non-Being. That is what we mean when we say that he in fact must tell us "at some point" that he does NOT SEE/PERCEIVE i-am ((...there's more...)) and therein EQUATE what he SEES ((Being)) with something ELSE that he in fact SEES, namely the in principle possibility that he himself via "I" sums to Non-Being.
So what does that look like in practice? Well let's unpack that:
The Opaque Skeptic must tell us that he DOES SEE/PERCEIVE the in principle possibility of the [A] married bachelor when dealing with the Identity Claim of the [B] Unmarried Bachelor. We have an equivocation there amid A vs. B such that “A = B” is a False Identity Claim, and so we have a contradiction and logical impossibility as per actual SIGHT. We find that he must tell us that he SEES the POSSIBILITY of that same “A = B” vis-à-vis an Identity Claim. Notice, however, that what he must claim to see is that which sums to Non-Being ((...either the Married Bachelor and/or the Logical Possibility of the Married Bachelor...)).
Now we take all of THAT and we apply it to the unity of consciousness and the Self. When we do that we run into that same category of the "A" = "Non-A" claim when the Opaque Skeptic is forced to interact with semantic intent (Language) as it applies to the "YOU" telling folks of one's own Self-Report all about one's own First Person Data ((..."I/"Me"/"My"...)). What the Opaque Skeptic must do is to find something ELSE besides "Irreducible-I-AM" to in fact BE the "Stand In" for the [A] the Intentional-Self / I-AM and so, then, he somehow ((per his own claim)) must assure us that said [A] is going to in principle possibly be that which is, say, [B] Gravity ((...or ANY "X" for which our First Person Semantic Intent of I/Me/My does not fit or capture....)).
But to "See/Perceive" that Equivocation is to "See/Perceive" what just is a False-Identity Claim which is to NOT ONLY DENY what IS SEEN ((...First Person Experience/Data via i-am...)) but it is ALSO the claim to in fact SEE the in principle possibility of that "A = Non-A". But that just is to claim to See/Perceive Non-Being, which is a Metaphysical Impossibility.
As for lower case being/i-am, well there is the Upper Case Being/I-AM and the Principle of Proportionate Causality ((...see the quote/definition below...)) by which to get FROM the Upper Case and TO the lower case. Being From Being. Sight From Sight. Truth From Truth.
It’s uncanny but notice that as Living / Thinking / Reasoning / Perceiving Beings / Minds there was never a time where we PRE-Supposed ANY-thing. Rather, all we did as Living / Thinking / Reasoning / Perceiving Beings / Minds was simply look ahead of us and chased after Evidence/Sight as we placed our foot down upon whatever Stepping Stone happened to show up out in front of us every step of the way.
To SEE/PERCEIVE Evil ((Privation / Being Minus Something)) is possible. To SEE/PERCEIVE Reductio/Contradiction is to see/perceive Non-Being and that is gibberish. When the Skeptic says he sees “it” we simply shrug and say “See what? Where?” And his silence will end all debate. Well, except for the part where he himself must claim to NOT-BE. Wait... For... It... The Nonsensical Identity Claims of A2 through H2 are in fact found trading away Being for Non-Being ((...a metaphysical impossibility...)).
Principle of Proportionate Causality:
“The idea is perhaps best stated in Platonic terms of the sort Aquinas uses (in an Aristotelianized form) in the Fourth Way. To be a tree or to be a stone is merely to participate in “treeness” or “stoneness.” But to be at all – which is the characteristic effect of an act of creation out of nothing – is to participate in Being Itself. Now the principle of proportionate causality tells us that whatever is in an effect must be in some way in its cause. And only that which just is Being Itself can, in this case, be a cause proportionate to the effect, since the effect is not merely to be a tree or to be a stone, but to be at all. So only God – who just is pure actuality or Being Itself rather than a being among others – can cause a thing to exist ex nihilo….” ((…from https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2011/07/first-without-second.html...))
End Excerpt From Discussion.
The essay “The Lord of Non-Contradiction: An Argument for God from Logic” by James N. Anderson and Greg Welty is at https://www.proginosko.com/docs/The_Lord_of_Non-Contradiction.pdf and is 22 pages long. A brief excerpt offers context and segues of obvious relevance here is below. Recall first that it’s only an excerpt and also recall that the Pains of Platonism fail to do the necessary work here for the reasons described in https://metachristianity.com/platonism-and-be-ing-and-do-ing-and-pure-act-and-counterfactuals-and-moral-facts/ — Here’s the excerpt from Anderson and Welty’s argument for God from Logic:
“….In any case, the laws of logic couldn’t be our thoughts — or the thoughts of any other contingent being for that matter — for as we’ve seen, the laws of logic exist necessarily if they exist at all. For any human person S, S might not have existed, along with S’s thoughts. The Law of Non-Contradiction, on the other hand, could not have failed to exist — otherwise it could have failed to be true. If the laws of logic are necessarily existent thoughts, they can only be the thoughts of a necessarily existent mind….. The laws of logic are necessary truths about truths; they are necessarily true propositions. Propositions are real entities, but cannot be physical entities – they are essentially thoughts. So the laws of logic are necessarily true thoughts. ((…recall the failures of Platonism…)) Since they are true in every possible world, they must exist in every possible world. But if there are necessarily existent thoughts, there must be a necessarily existent mind; and if there is a necessarily existent mind, there must be a necessarily existent person. A necessarily existent person must be spiritual in nature, because no physical entity exists necessarily. Thus, if there are laws of logic, there must also be a necessarily existent, personal, spiritual being. The laws of logic imply the existence of God….”
Notice again that regardless of one's "....metaphysical wellspring of all ontological possibility..." it is the case that "Getting In Behind/Beneath Oneself" is not coherent such that our earlier D2 "X Is Subject To X" akin to our earlier E2 "X Is Beneath X" are metaphysical impossibilities when we speak of ANY "Fundamental Nature" and for all the same reasons we here again find that "We Mean To Apply Logic's Force To Pre-Logic" is again incoherent. "Presupposition" is not possible UNLESS and UNTIL the Critic can coherently pull-off those earlier/aforementioned A2 through H2. But of course the Non-Theist cannot pull-off those Nonsensical Identity Claims. It is not clear what our Non-Theist friends mean with respect to Reason/Mind when they accuse the Christian of Pre-Supposing by getting in Pre-Being and getting in Pre-Mind and getting in Pre-Reason and getting in Pre-Perception vis-à-vis getting in Pre-The-Intentional Self. The principle of proportionate causality, the metaphysic of Being Itself, and the fallacy of Presuppositionalism are perhaps segues into ((...or out of...)) the following:
“The most basic pedagogical decision to make in presenting the doctrine of the Trinity is whether to begin the exposition with the temporal missions and reason back from them to the eternal processions, or whether to take the opposite approach, beginning rather with the eternal processions and then working out and down to the temporal missions. Both procedures have much to commend them.” (Fred Sanders: The Triune God – New Studies in Dogmatics)
We know that whether we speak of Presentism or whether we speak of Eternalism it is the case either way that Time is neither the Absolute nor the absolute reference frame nor the Absolute’s Own Reference Frame. The Absolute’s frame of reference cannot even in principle *be* Self-Explanatory unless and until the Absolute is in fact Self-Referencing. We also know by both reason and logic that at the end of all explanatory termini we are forced into either A. final absurdity or else B. the Self-Explanatory in and of and by the Absolute’s Reference Frame, which must by necessity be Self-Reference and the reason why is found in both the necessity of Totality and in the necessity of Identity as each reveals (....forces else reductio ad absurdum...) all over again that the Absolute’s frame of reference cannot even in principle *be* Self-Explanatory unless and until the Absolute is in fact Self-Referencing — which is a metaphysical absurdity but for the Triune God who meets us in Genesis.
The I AM identity: There is no frame of reference for “Self” but for the fact of “Other”, as the Absolute’s Self-Reference presses in through the eons of the “I AM” traversing history:
“….. we are forced to conclude that these are relational qualities and have no meaning in isolation. In other words, in God, qualities of personality can be actualized only if there is an actual, eternal relationship in him prior to, outside of, and without reference to creation. Only in that way would God be a personal being without being dependent on his creation. When Moses asked God for his name, the answer he got was least expected: I AM (Ex. 3:14). This amazing mystery of the name (identity) of God solves a problem that we may not always be aware of: God is his own frame of reference. We have already considered the fact that the infinite cannot be defined with reference to the finite. God, therefore, must be self-referencing. This would be an absurd proposition but for the fact that, in the being of God, there is a plurality of infinite persons and each can define himself with reference to the other. God can truly be said to be self-existent only because he is the all-personal, all-relational being…” (L. T. Jeyachandran)
Truth-Telling When Reporting First Person DATA
Truth-Telling vs. Sight – Part 1 We must not conflate [A] Negative Theology or terms like that which speak of truths over the horizon that we cannot see for [B1] Contradictions and Absurdity and that [B2] is the "Brute Fact" which lives in [B1] simply because it is a member of category called the Reductio Ad Absurdum which we find over inside of "Not Intelligible Even In Principle" ((...see https://metachristianity.com/platonism-and-be-ing-and-do-ing-and-pure-act-and-counterfactuals-and-moral-facts/ as well as its section for "Similar content with segues from E. Feser"...)). Both "A" and "B" are different categories all together such that "A = B" ends in a false identity claim. Equating Mailbox to Self is not a problem of something being out of our range of sight. Rather, it is a problem of Truth-Telling and dishonesty as per Contradiction and Absurdity given the fact that one cannot "see" "non-being" and so therefore the claim to "see" the "in principle possibility" of "round squares" just is to claim to "see" Non-Being. When it comes to "that" "sight" there comes a point when the person making such a claim cannot claim to be doing anything more than, well, Lying.
Truth-Telling vs. Sight – Part 2 It is a straightforward discussion regarding “First Person Data” and “Third Person Data” vis-à-vis the intended meaning when the Experienced Self is report in the First Person and that self-report uses the terms "I" and "I-Intend" and so on. We find that those terms reduce to contradiction when we replace "I" and "Intention" and "I-Reason" and "I-Think" and i-am and finally "i" with terms that cannot house the intended property under review which of course is DATA but not Third Person DATA. Instead the DATA is exactly what the label referents, namely it is First Person Data. When we speak of Truth-Telling here we can recall the obvious fact that "YOU" ((…say, the person reading this and who only a few days ago upon introspection pondered how a particular movie would end…)) are not "The Self-Report" given when “YOU” speak of “I wonder what how the movie will end….” Just as "YOU" ((…still the person reading this, who, a few days ago upon introspection pondered how a particular movie would end…)) are not "The Language" and "YOU" are not "The Premises/Syllogisms". If "You" "reason about X" well then premises with respect to X are not "identical" to "You". We have there then the simple fact that “A” is not "B" with respect to the intended property under review.
Truth-Telling vs. Sight – Part 3 Truth-Telling in these preliminary steps of language and semantic intent sets the stage for moving into what the Language is “ABOUT” and of course “aboutness” will at some point arrive in our self-reports regarding First Person Data vis-à-vis Intention as one of the many intended properties under review. Our Self-Reports are of course, at first, “Language” but we must recall that there are Meaning Makers which necessarily precede and underlay all of our language given that “language” is ONLY a carrier of something ELSE – namely what turns out to be, in the end, HARD DATA vis-à-vis the Experienced-Self. Regarding “Language Games” perhaps Wittgenstein can help as per “Goodill on Scholastic Metaphysics and Wittgenstein” at Ed Feser’s blog via https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2015/12/goodill-on-scholastic-metaphysics-and.html
An Interesting Title: "Against Pure A-Priori-ism"
The A-Priori A brief segue related to A-Priori from the following excerpt of "Against Pure A-Priori-ism" at https://theologiansinc.wordpress.com/2018/06/02/against-pure-a-priori-ism/
The core of Russell’s argument comes down to this: ‘All of our justified everyday empirical and scientific beliefs are justified either because they rest on the principle of induction or on the principle of IBE.’ For Rusell, both induction and IBE are themselves justified a priori, so any belief we have by way of either is justified a priori. In order to show the falsity of Russell’s position, all that needs to be done is show that some empirical propositions are not acquired by either induction or IBE.
Here’s a more formal explication of my argument against Russell’s theory of a priori justification (R):
- Either every empirical belief is justified a priori or it is not
- On (R), for this to be true, every empirical belief is acquired either by induction or IBE
- Not all empirical beliefs are acquired by induction or IBE
- Therefore, some empirical beliefs are not justified a priori
- Therefore, (R) is false
All Relevant Forms Of Reasoning The book “A Manual For Creating Atheists by Peter Boghossian” is reviewed by Robert L. White and White offers some interesting segues with respect to epistemological justification. His helpful review of Peter’s book is at https://www.robertlwhite.net/philosophy/manual-creating-atheists-review/ and the following are a few excerpts:
“Since I care about spreading true beliefs in the world…”
“…we are now discussing the meta problem of epistemology when dealing with Christianity vs atheism, rather than the details of arguments for God, historicity of the Bible, etc. That meta problem is probably my favorite subject….”
“Logic always wins…. You can’t escape reason. It is, indeed, the freight train coming your way. As much as you avoid it, reality is unfortunately based on, well, reality, and you are doomed and destined to rub up against…”
“All relevant forms of reasoning are on the table…”
A List Of Relevant Segues:
The above post is in part ((not all)) several excerpts from the following and so there are perhaps segues of interest in a. "A Thoroughly Trinitarian Metaphysic" at https://metachristianity.com/thoroughly-trinitarian-metaphysic/ and also in b. "Indefeasible Inner Witness, Holy Spirit, Properly Basic Belief, Solipsism, Idealism, Eliminativism, And Absolute Consciousness" at https://metachristianity.com/indefeasible-inner-witness-holy-spirit-properly-basic-belief-solipsism-idealism-eliminativism-absolute-consciousness/
- Consciousness, Emergence, Intentionality, Searle, Reason Atop The Irrational, And Naturalism’s Egregious Deficiency at https://metachristianity.com/consciousness-emergence-intentionality-searle-reason-atop-the-irrational/
- Theology and The Analytic A-Posteriori at https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2020/06/theology-and-analytic-posteriori.html
- The Particle Collection That Fancied Itself A Physicist https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2020/08/the-particle-collection-that-fancied.html
- Post Intentional Depression https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2015/01/post-intentional-depression.html
- Rosenberg VIII http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2012/03/reading-rosenberg-part-viii.html
- Rosenberg IX http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2012/04/reading-rosenberg-part-ix.html
- Rosenberg X http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2012/04/reading-rosenberg-part-x.html
- Eliminativism 1 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/08/eliminativism-without-truth-part-i.html
- Eliminativism 2 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/08/eliminativism-without-truth-part-ii.html
- Eliminativism 3 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/08/eliminativism-without-truth-part-iii.html
- Mad Dogs And Eliminativists http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/08/mad-dogs-and-eliminativists.html
- Churchland 1 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2009/12/churchland-on-dualism-part-i.html
- Churchland 2 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2009/12/churchland-on-dualism-part-ii.html
- Churchland 3 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2009/12/churchland-on-dualism-part-iii.html
- Churchland 4 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2010/06/churchland-on-dualism-part-iv.html
- Churchland 5 http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2013/09/churchland-on-dualism-part-v.html
- Kripke, Ross, and the Immaterial Aspects of Thought – at https://www.newdualism.org/papers/E.Feser/Feser-acpq_2013.pdf
- Animals Are Conscious. In Other News, The Sky Is Blue – at https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2012/08/animals-are-conscious-in-other-news-sky.html
- Against Neurobabble – at https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2011/01/against-neurobabble.html
- Other Minds & Modern Philosophy — https://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2020/07/other-minds-and-modern-philosophy.html
- Properly Understanding Properly Basic Beliefs – at https://www.reasonablefaith.org/writings/question-answer/properly-understanding-properly-basic-beliefs/